tv Washingtons Civil War Forts and Parks CSPAN July 12, 2014 7:00pm-8:01pm EDT
look at the fascinating look into washington's civil war history. to me add my welcome everyone in attendance and watching online. the commission's role as the planning agency in the suburbs of virginia and maryland, we seek to protect and enhance the rich historic and cultural resources, which includes the parks. the planning commission recently celebrated 90 years since our organization was chartered by congress. that one of our early responsibilities involved to inquiring a property that has become fort circle parks. in terms of what we do, i would like to mention one project, one relevant to the national archives. we started work on the pennsylvania avenue initiative.
the generalng with services administration and the national park service to study the near and long-term need for pennsylvania avenue between the white house and the capitol. we will develop a vision for which is homereet to so many national treasures, including this building. i want to send a thanks to the national parks service and recognize peter may. he is a fellow ncpc commissioner bud his day job is associate director for lands, resources, and planning. locals may recognize these names as parks, neighborhoods, even metro stations but many are surprised to learn about their civil war history. the civil war was a milestone in
the nation's history. arerole of gettysburg well-known to all of us. today we are going to learn about another important albeit less well-known battle that took place not far from where we are today. defense is for the built to protect washington, ,.c. the battle of fort stevens the city of washington, d.c. could be in a different place today. today we will learn about the development of the civil war for us, their role in the war, and their insulin transformation into public parks that today we know as the fort circle parks. let me begin by introducing you to our terrific group of presenters. is a. franklin cooling well-regarded military and naval historian and a professor at the university ofse
resource strategy. he has written extensively on the region, tennessee and kentucky and the roles they played in the civil war. he will discuss the development of the civil war defenses, washington, and their impact on the war. is the cofounder and vice president of the alliance to preserve the civil war defenses of washington. handling national parks and historic preservation legislation and she also direct to the american heritage rivers initiative on environmental quality. today she will discuss the ontwar impact on the forts the surrounding neighborhoods and their evolution. the program manager for civil war defenses of washington.
she is responsible for the management and overs i of 16 of andremaining forts batteries owned and operated by the national park service. said today she will highlight and provide ay preview of the weekend's activities at fort stevens. let me begin now with dr. cooling. [applause] >> good afternoon. it is a pleasure to be back in this facility even if every time i go into the wrong entrance. as a researcher i became accustomed over 30 years of going in the other side. you don't want to hear about that today. i will mention the archives in just a second in a different context. i am happy to say for quach are
days i have listened to the national park service and the city and frederick county regale savedh how the battle washington from confederate capture. , and abeen privy developer in this legend with a couple of books, i fear i am part of the problem. today i want to tell you the real battle is saved to the city of washington is what we're going to talk about in some degree. we are going to talk about fortress washington, abe and the fort stevens, battle that really saved the union on the 11th and 12th of july 1864. it is ironic not 50 years plus one month before, 50 years and a 49th before, i guess that is thes and 11 months, anyway,
british captured washington and burned the public buildings. setting a day in infamy that was or 1941. 50 years later, an enemy almost did it again. even though they were fellow americans, the enemy of the state, the enemy of the united states, the confederacy. 1864, despite a linkage between then and now through the commemoration of the and thentennial commemoration of the bicentennial. let me say this, without the national archives, and this is without theg, national capital finding commission and the parks service, the task of andmbrance, preservation,
public use, public recognition would be infinitely harder. public records and planning and foresight links together then with now and into the future. we're not there yet, the future. believe me. what we have is using the laboratory of historical site officialt, the records and private, the awareness, the education, the furthering of agendas is what the sesquicentennial must be about. president of the the civil war trust yesterday and hehe opening address pointed to the fact that preservation of land will outlive all of us, including of course machine-readable and print readable records. surprisingly to say. 1814.
villageon was a small that purported to be the capital of a new nation. it was the seat of government. by 1864, washington is much more than that. it is the fortress of washington. a fortified city. forts, 93 batteries, entrenchments, infrastructure for logistics, hospitals, as well as the political capital of the nation, the united states. 1814, thereeen for would not have been the parttion paid by 1864 in to protecting the city. through the intervening years, there had been did in the area
of the most possible threat, the river, fort washington. neglect did and of no use whatsoever in the war of the civil war especially was fivefact, maryland miles away from us, surrounding the capital of the union. or the old the united states. 1864, there is a ring the fortification around the city, parklands.ly are they are preserved. we have something that the and suggest it is still it is being employed usefully for the city and the population today. and thely, locally, residents of the district of columbia. these were earthen
fortifications. these were field fortifications thrown up by artilleryman, hired labor, private contractors even back then. maybe halliburton did not have anything to do with it, but it is interesting to think about. a communication system of signals, roads, parks, store houses, arsenals. why do we consider this symbol, sword and shield, symbol of the union, the shield that protected the fortification and the city and the sword, the union armies that were supposed to work together as important in our particular story? forts and the
,eavy armament at fort foot which you must visit because it is superb, restored and preserved, by 1864, we have an is, if the duke of wellington had been here, he would have said it was a damn close run thing. despite all of these fortifications, despite the thousands of public dollars expended on this system, it was the critical summer of 1864, a critical month of july. 10 critical days of which right now if we had been in the city i have not gotten there yet. give me a chance. [laughter]
been there on july 10, 1864, we would be panicked, in the streets, without air conditioning or refrigeration because the rebels were close enough to be in rockville, gaithersburg, and on up. we are here today. this was the third confederate invasion of northern territory in the stalemated war. it was a critical reelection summer for the president of the united states and abraham lincoln was a man with the same problems as president obama has, a not so loyal opposition of his called the radicals that had sent to him a drastic reconstruction bill that would have been punitive and
ofalatable to his scheme reconstruction. the wade davis bill. was the risk-taking attempt by robert e lee to change the strategic balance in the war in the east. politically,d although militarily robert e. lee wanted to break the stranglehold of ulysses s. grant, and others. and of course you may recall in the west, the atlanta campaign had become bogged down. on the coast, wilmington, north carolina and other places had not been blockaded by the union. of 1864,in this summer everything was at a standstill. the war had not been one after gettysburg. forget gettysburg. forget emancipation.
it all hung in the balance on an afternoon here at fort stevens when a confederate general, had children out of wedlock, spit ofacco, lee's bad old man, which i have a biography, pointing out many of his foibles. he was a fighter. he was the last thing robert e. lee had as an instrument for changing the war and he came with 8000 men, atul hardened coming again was change or in the east. the timeline, the citizen soldier, the lawyer, who opposed the succession, but went with
the state, never understood that because he was a west pointer. after the war, he used to look across and complain about the olebara p -- barber ple flag, the american flag. he swore allegiance to it. so i don't have much for his comment on the american flag. how close? it is all a matter of speed. the delays begin for this previous week starting with the fourth of july when his men enjoyed the repass set out by the union soldiers and he loses three days. he loses another day at frederick. a battle that cost him the services of one of his best visions, but he has become the offederate incarnate
hardware. great extortionist of the civil war. to extort capital from all of these northern maryland cities like hagerstown and middletown in frederick and he waste a lot of time when his mission is to get to washington, change the scope of the war, capture the city, dispersed the lincoln but he istion, extracting 200 grand from frederick. priorities. nature, the second factor. on july 10, the thermometer in georgetown in maryland stood in the mid-90's. the drought had been in the region for weeks on end. supply andn short the marching callings went .hrough six inch on the highway,
not what we have with i270. probably took them just as long. [laughter] just about as unpleasant too. all of these delays due to our main point about the battle of fort stevens, and i don't want to go on too long because we have other things to talk about this afternoon. fort stevens had been set up as here insachusetts washington as early as 1861. after the previous invasion, they expanded fort massachusetts, who had been built by volunteers into fort stevens. you can still see, and we'll talk about the restored parapet. otherwise everyone says, where is the fort? thinking they're going to find a
stockade or like fort mchenry. fort stevens was an expanded earthen fort with a stockaded backside to it. had 19 guns. time by band by this 150 day men out of i ohio who as cannono be shipped fire for the battles of virginia. wereestingly, these men the equal to the heavy artillery because the remaining garrisons had trained these people. let me tell you, one moment in upe before i wrap this thing . afternoon of july 11, monday afternoon. the moment when the two forces
will meet at fort stevens. there is early's men coming in from frederick and reinforcements finally coming up from the petersburg lines by boat. they are down at the docks at this very moment. down georgiaides avenue, 7th street, and at the walter reed is situated on what is going to become a battlefield. the only battlefield in the district of columbia. jubal early, hunched over from out hiss, pulls binoculars and looks down at the union lines from his left.
he peers and he senses the moment of opportunity to change the course of the war, my career, american history, and the future of the confederacy. can you imagine that career opportunity for any of us? not robert e lee, ulysses s. grant. jubal early. never heard of him. soldiers know him. the enemy was going to know about him. he turns to bring up his army and there is no army because of the heat and the dust and they to straggling all the way gaithersburg. would we have pressed that issue? all of you folks who are leaders, here is your moment. would you have pushed the momentum and found something more than a corporal's guard to
go through? jubal early does not. maybe he was tired. he hated the yankees. he could not push forward. what does he do? what most of us would have done. he retires to silver spring, a rum cellar, and he loses the initiative. here at fort stevens. abraham lincoln, he sees what is going on. --also wants if you think lincoln was not a politician, you might be too idealistic. he comes out on july 11.
second day he comes up to the wright, theratio commander who has brought his president iays, mr. am happy to see you. would you like to see a battle? realizes than that, he good heavens, the president goes up on the ramparts and is shot. who becomes vice president? never heard of hannibal hamlin. what happens to the nation and the city? all kinds of things can happen. abe nearly gets shot. where the boulder is, the great what-ifs of history based on the records and legend and myth and storytelling, like i am telling stories today. history never repeats itself. historians repeat each other. [laughter]
in any case, lincoln is almost shot. a surgeon is cut down nearby. again a missed opportunity for the confederacy. nearly shot.was early realized he could not reach the defenses because w right and his troops had come in and of course this episode , or does nothing much for lincoln's reelection chances that summer. he probably had in his mind de davis bille wa more than anything else. and the political chances of reelection, remember the blind memorandum in the deadly summer of near defeat, largely because
of early before washington. cabinetident gets his to sign on the back of a promisesm saying he everybody well a bite of the succession that will come when he thinks he is not going to get will abide by-- tha the succession that will come when he thinks he is not going to get reelected. conspiracy theory. a scathing criticism of a war entirely. sherman is going nowhere. the navy is going nowhere. only the confederate seem to be going somewhere. but they escaped. they escaped. so a change of command will occur in august that brings that team together of grant, sheraton, and early's demise.
linespulling out of the turns to his staff and goes well, gentlemen, i guess we scared abe lincoln like hell. douglas, to his aid, who represents most of the confederate force is picked off because he did not get into washington. he turns to his superior and says on the afternoon of the 12th, you can see these couple of red gate came against us in a counter assault. there was somebody else who was scared like hell, i suspect. bal utters a couple more profanities and says, yeah, i guess so. ain't going to make it into the history books. it has. even if not by official records. out theirs, which fill
official records and in fact i ventured to tell you there are probably more records in the national archives now that are not in the official records of the war published by the war department in the navy the benefit of the veterans after the war. although the military also used it in war planning. there is probably more that can be found. let me suggest this, grants may have declared early's lost opportunity changed his summer plans. if only to finally force granted to seal the achilles' heel of the shenandoah valley and approach washington. forsoldiers in these forts, days after early was long gone, we're cleaning up. not the battlefield, cleaning up the fortifications. kind of locking the barn door
after the horse had been stolen. a number of these veterans, the watermark of the confederacy was it was asburg, tollhouse. ,t the corner of georgia avenue that was the fullest extent of the confederate forces on the 12 tooon of july 11 and capture washington, changing the course of the war and the course of us today. quite frankly. have eroded. we don't know where lincoln stood. i think he stood all over the place. he never stood still. down, he was was
at fort stevens. but we really don't know for sure, despite the lovely stone out there. the veterans remembered seeing him there. i am 75 years of age, i remember it differently than when i was fighting, or something like that at 20, 18. so who knows? been mistaken that they wanted to mark that spot and they got the stone and brought it up there and put the bar relief on there and that is their monument. tot is their monument lincoln under enemy fire. we don't know that the justice of the supreme court really uttered one of those words, gets that damn fool down. five or sixsuggest
other people, veterans and the owner of the property also shouted get that fold down dow -- did that fool down. he told him he could not protect him. mr. president, i can't guarantee your protection. so finally lincoln gets down off his perch. urbanized washington took over. yetl washington forts are another of washington's many monuments that have transitioned in purpose. to survival of the unification, particularly for stevens, they want recognition, appreciation, commemoration for lostthey did and probably over 1000 people and casualties, some of whom are buried in the
cemetery and the confederate cemetery out in silver spring. become andhey have what they rot 150 years ago certainly weren't sour gratitude today and a recognition -- warra nts our gratitude today and our recognition. the general officers and the enlisted personnel, the veterans war, theback after the most immediate great entitlement program, build a house, and help is goingwhat loretta to tell you about right now. pink you. -- thank you. [applause]
he is amazing. everything i am going to show you i have learned from him and a few others like him. but mainly from frank. for the civil war defense of washington. lincoln's bible, mr. forts. that is the books to read. i wish i had brought it with me. i encourage you to get that oak. i'm going to -- get that book. the nice thing about youtube is you can watch it later and pause and look at these at your leisure. and you can read faster than i can talk. just want you to see these beautiful places that i love, their history, and as parks and recreation and resources. the lungs of the city.
so there we start. wasrank said, the city unprotected down below. if you have not been there, you should go. it is different from the forts built during the civil war. run, lincoln knew the city was vulnerable and that major generalered to design this a series of forts to protect it. so here they are. amazingsee it was quite to build all of those. he did them quickly. it was tremendous. and here they are today. i have circled on this old map the ones under government ownership today. the parks service owns the ones in washington, d.c. and one in maryland and virginia.
others are owned by local governments. you will see them as well. story, inrt of the 1902, a commission report on the parks, one of the major recommendations had to do with the civil war defenses of washington. they sell the forts were beautiful to look at and to look from and they saw these as potential parks and linking them , andthe fort circle drive i have a newspaper article that says all but one mild was bought. so there is land all over those forts. these are all the different forts, three different management systems, and it is something we are hoping to change. alomar -- eleanor holmes norton has introduced legislation to
establish the civil war defense of washington national historical parks and have it under its own superintendent and hopefully its own staff and we will be able to do those exuberant like the gun. -- doing to give you those things we would like to see done. it is quite an amazing place. is theng i like to note farmland. all of this was farmland. hit andthe houses were burned. here it is today. in the 1930's, the ccc reconstructed much of fort stevens. you can't get the flavor of what it was like. it is well worth a visit. there is a magazine and a boulder. sorry i did not get a picture. it is their. it was also important in african-american history, then
and now. it was the earliest black and thist in d.c. woman was a free african-american who owned 11 acres. women did not tend to own the land at all. and a free black woman is unusual. her land was taken for fort stevens. and just down from foreign this is private property. it was threatened with a townhouse development. some of us said we have got to do something. we got it added to fort stevens. down here, two more african-american properties and i encourage you to read about them, the military road school in the lightfoot house. here is a map. the battles, all of the fortifications manned up.
the did not know where confederates would come. they were coming from the north. so this whole range came into play and it starts down at here is the metro station. slocum, which is a neighbor of ours. we live in tacoma. here is fort stevens. we are very close. derussy, andhe -- reno was huge. you will see a picture of that in a moment. i also have it down here, fort bayard and battery campbell. hill, it is a square block. areparks and services repairing the trails that lead there. so it should be a great recreation spot even though it
none of the defenses are left. and coming into where fort land. is is a stretch of there is a drive along it. supposedly it is in the middle. this is leading into fort totten. here is the metro station. and then this is part of the fort circle drive land. here is fort totten. notice, i have tried to get the real person's name. the more i get to learn, i love the land, but these are real people. i'm trying to bring the human element into the story. fort totten today is not doing well. when i first started taking pictures 15 years ago, this gate
was open. there is erosion from dirt bikers. but it is beautiful land. it is huge. could be a magnificent park. it needs staffing and resources and programs. slocum, here again, this is all farmland. the u.s. colored infantry was there. nco's were african-american. today there is nothing left of the defenses, but there is a great heart and i think interpreting it, having a canon there, and having a ranger give a talk, this is part of the fort circle drive land that was never built on.
along the side, it makes a lovely boulevard. derussy is so beautiful. you come up to oregon avenue and you pull off. it is very easy to find. , theyis this huge tree think it was there during the battle. off,imes when they got cut they grew back. it is about 150 years old. they are massive. you can go all the way around. and some hiking trails. just a terrific park. again, fort reno is the highest point in d.c. and they had this tower. so they can see the confederates coming and a new, we were in trouble. similarly when jubal early
thatd at fort reno he said is well fortified and it is high and big and strong. then he came onto georgian avenue to fort stevens. and here is the modern fort reno. even though there is nothing left of the defenses, if you climb to the top, that is virginia in the distance. you can really feel what it might have been like, close your eyes, it is definitely worth a visit. and in nearby, more land. some land brought for the civil war defenses and i took this just a couple of weeks ago. ninth ining along the king, what a beautiful wilderness. amazing space. this is terrific. it as apeople don't use park and i saw this guy, sure enough, reading a kindle or
something. that is a park. battery campbell. the community loves it for dog walking. are somehe trees defenses that remain. it is beautiful area. chainas to guard the bridge, the only bridge between washington and harpers ferry. is the onlyhe river fort the parks service has today in virginia. massive,ilt and it has pretty good-sized defenses. not much interpretation. know where to go. and you can enjoy it. that is something i would love to see in the future, and then crossing the anacostia to the other side of the river, this
beautiful land up here. those are all the fort circle parks. the connecting land and the forts. i gave this to the planning commission when they had a hearing on the expansion and i said think about what would happen if holdings were high. it would destroy the view and looking from those places, you will see a couple of pictures of them, how terrible it would be to destroy this great vista. going to show you everyone of them. at least you will get a flavor. you can see how beautiful they are and the potential they have. we are going to start at the bottom. so here is fort foote. this is one of my favorites. it was high over the river. you can see this beautiful vista.
and here ismportant me under this canon. it is to show you how big they are. real ones.he you can see the picture. they have fallen down, but they were put a cup. -- back up. it is about six miles down. here is fort stanton. go through our lady of perpetual help cap the lic highway.catho 2003is the view i took in when i started getting involved with the park service. here is the same view. it was all covered. i complained about it and she byght and said she wanted it the fourth of july to have it cut and i went the other day and took this picture. it is even better than before. so thank you, kym.
this is not part of the civil war defense, but nobody can go there and not drop by and see onalproject douglas nati historic site. former slave, and a speaker and a statesman. and the house is fabulous. down the way is fort ricketts. there is stuff behind there. you can see the picnic table and there are defenses still there. thatdavis, the only part was ever constructed. andas done during the ccc 1935. it is overgrown, but you can go there and see what the defenses look like. dupont, it has problems with exotic vegetation. tell younow -- i can't
what to do about the vegetation. but it does hurt the earth works. these beautiful plants, native species, aangered ranger told me people drive all the way to the shenandoah mountains to see them and you can walk up and see them. so it is well worth a visit. this is the hike i went on with the sierra club. this afternoon, there will be one leaving from fort derussy. if you'd like to join them, you can do that. go to the nature center. it is more of a park, but it is wonderful. and then here are the ones in virginia and maryland owned by local governments.
this is battery bailey. it is just a little one. is just a place where they had a platform. they were not garrisoned. it is just very charming and the lot of these displays about what it did look like and it is interesting right off of mass avenue. fort ethan now in, they have done a wonderful job of improving it and doing some interpretation. they had a fabulous event. here is another one, cf smith. this is there now and they have bathrooms. we don't have those at fort stevens. oft wood, this is the gem them all. it is big and it has been restored. museum. great
it is in alexandria. terrific. are also doing a lot of history on the african-american story, which i won't get into. they are trying to make up for past wrongs. is a traffic circle. look what they did. those are real ones. that is a canon. it feels like you are back then. this is fort stevens. this is what it was the last couple of years. every year we have an event. year is going to be on steroids. it is going to be fabulous. here is kym. this is our alliance group. our treasurer gary thompson and me. important to have
advocates, and that is what we are. we are six years old, we are fighting very hard for that legislation and we hope you will help us support it and i enqueue for the chance to speak. -- thank you for the chance to speak. [applause] >> again good afternoon. i want to thank our hosts and having all of these folks here today to talk about the civil war forts of washington and our sister agency the ncpc. again, i'm going to click this button. so my colleagues alluded to, we've got a lot of great things going on and we are ready to tell that story.
the 150th anniversary of the battle of fort stevens, the only civil war battle fought in washington, d.c. we are going to have lots of at theies, including battleground cemetery, the cemetery, the 38 union soldiers buried there. it is a lovely place to visit. many oft to point out you may have gotten a copy of this program. campaign of the attack on washington by jubal early. opportunity to visit, please do so. today intonoted, miro, we've got a lot of great things going on. c-span will be there tomorrow evening to cover the civil war historians roundtable.
we have noted speakers and then said, we are looking to fort stevens day on steroids. we're going to have mr. lincoln there. we will be firing a cannon. a cannon time in 150 will be fired from abc fort -- a d.c. fort. theon sunday we will have memorial program at the battleground national cemetery and we will pay respect to the 38 soldiers buried there any many others who have given the ultimate sacrifice for this country. i know we did not have a lot of time and i am not sure we are going to be able to open it up for questions but i encourage you to tell your friends about website.sit our
and thank you so very much. [applause] >> i think we have time for one or two questions. if people would like to come to either of the microphones. questions, we will go ahead and take them in turn. if you could give us a minute, sir. david balducci. your presentation. i would like to ask about the legislation. itonder if you can get into deeper and maybe focus on how the local government owned virginia forts will be incorporated into that plan. >> thanks. i take it you are from virginia.
the bill would, we tried to make it revenue neutral. it provides for a cooperative agreement with the other locally owned forts. and then with private owners, there is still some private owners have some portions of old forts on them. we would like to get better signage. for example, i went out a few weeks ago with my husband, he loves to go with me. i said there is a fort bennett in virginia. there was a sign and you can -- there is a ravine on the side. i thought maybe it was there. even though there is an apartment building there. so we will have things. and we will study a way to have to studyn washington
and commemorate the civil war and both sides, the confederate and union. >> i would like to ask a question about the compensation for folks' land. i talked to the ranger at the was stevens site and she not compensated. i am interested to know how we got the land then to setup the fort and what practices were in place at that time. we had a free black woman by the name of elizabeth thomas. considered eminent domain. they came through and took the property. we don't have proof she was compensated.
you can do that in a time of four, and that is what happened. and the rest of the forts? the same practice? militaryas called necessity in a time of war. you can take the property. the descendents of elizabeth said president lincoln promised her a great reward. she never got a great reward. the descendents have never seen any reward at all, in records and so forth. the property owners at the end of the war received back the land, if they could prove it was their land and basically the timbre and what was remaining in the forts that could be utilized. they could put in claims for damages and in fact the claims is where war record
you would go to find the records of what had happened. used in theversally south where the military had occupied land and destroyed property. fences, barns. that is the story there. four months after the end of the war, at appomattox, for example, some of these forts were fearsed and gradually the of any resurgence of the rebellion, or the threat from the french in mexico or the british, whoever, the army realized it was taking up a lot of money keeping these things and so they got rid of them. returned its garrison into the 1870's. and of course fort washington, even more recently, was an active post.
i think you will be our last question. >> i was wondering if you could help me with a question i have had, when jubal early approached washington, cavalry patrols were sent on the east and west sides of the city. there was an expedition to try to free the prisoners at point lookout. that intrigued me was the cavalry regiment on the western side of washington who were lost and did not know where they were reported they entered one of the forts. found it unmanned combat went on the ramparts and could see the white house and the capital in the distance. do you think there is any credibility to that report and what could it have been? >> let me explain, there are three legends you have wrapped into one.
[laughter] mccausland's cavalry came down the rockville pike. we are not sure why really deviates intorly georgia avenue. , there is a map on display out of the library of 1864.ss dated april it is obviously taken from the corps of engineers map, etc. but whether or not he had it resented so they could come and see where to get into washington, we don't know. mystery's are surfacing all over the place in the official records. ausland had a young man, a
road is named after his family. lawyer, has, a taken a diary of that family. usland through the lines up to fort gaines at america university, had dinner at his family place, and they look to down on the lights of the capital. he was happy to tell this story to general grant when he was in the white house after the war. you can imagine grant chomping on his cigar. for years, nobody believed it. confederate soldiers claimed to have seen the capital. that was hokum. there is no where you can see the dome of the capitol. it is below where the visual
would have gotten it. probably saw the lights of -- had snuck apparently through the lines on that night and got not there. nobody else we know of. john gordon claims to have road on the lines in broad daylight. no way of substantiating that. the old soldiers have vivid there are the origins of your story. yearsas a surveyor for 42 u.s. maps,the 1880 the first of the city ever put out by the federal government and the fortifications are on their. it is a cool set of maps. i think the library could of congress has them. would like toi thank the national archives for
hosting this wonderful event. our speakers, dr. b. franklin cooling, loretta neumann, kym elder. please join me one last time in a round of applause for them. [applause] [captions copyright national cable satellite corp. 2014] [captioning performed by national captioning institute] you are watching american history tv on c-span3. >> each week, american history tv sits in on a lecture with one of the nation's college professors. you can watch the lecture every saturday evening at 8:00 p.m. and midnight eastern. professor brett rushforth talks about france's impact on north america in the early 1700's. he also details the territorial tensions between the french and great britain that brought the ve